Endogenous and exogenous properties are designated by standard codes. In addition to the standardized codes listed above, you are free to enter any other property label you want.

Warning : only use single-word codes - Puck does not allow for empty spaces in property codes.

Note : property codes are fixed and language-independent. They do not change by switching from one language to another.


Main Endogenous Properties

“Endogenous” criteria of classification are calculated by Puck from the genealogical data and are derived automatically from the kinship network itself : sibling group size, number of known ascendants, number of spouses, etc. They need not and should not be explicitly specified, and their codes should not be used to enter properties or to load them from a file.

  • ALL - a pseudo-property that serves to remove a partition and to restore the unity of the underlying corpus

  • ***BIRTH_ORDER - birth order

  • ***GENDER - gender

  • GEN - generation (see here)

  • FIRSTN - first name

  • LASTN - last name

  • FRATP - father, agnatic fratry

  • FRATM - mother, uterine fratry

  • PATRIC - agnatic apical ancestor, “patrilineage”

  • MATRIC - uterine apical ancestress, “matrilineage”

  • PATRID - distance to the agnatic apical ancestor, “agnatic generation”

  • MATRID - distance to the agnatic apical ancestress, “uterine generation”

  • DEPTH - distance to the most remote ancestor, maximal generational depth

  • MDEPTH - mean distance to ancestors, mean generational depth. The formula have been defined by Cazes (Cazes & Cazes, 1996)

  • PEDG x - number of ascendants (where x is a number specifying generational distance)

  • PROG x - number of descendants (where x is a number specifying generational distance)
    Note : The properties PEDG (pedigree) and PROG (progeny) require specification by a number that indicates generational distance. For instance, PEDG 2 is the number of grandparents, PROG 1 the number of children.

  • SPOU - number of spouses


Main Exogenous Properties

The “Exogenous” classification criteria do not derive from the kinship network itself : dates of birth, death or marriage, profession, residence, religion, etc. Exogenous properties have to be specified explicitly for each individual in the file from which the corpus is loaded or by entering them in the data window. Puck uses the standard gedcom codes for exogenous properties.

  • ***BIRT_DATE - birth date

  • ***BIRT_PLACE - birth place

  • ***DEAT_DATE - death date

  • ***DEAT_PLACE - death place

  • ***MARR - marriage (place/date/year/alter)
    Note : Binarizing this property according to place, date or period and using this binarized property for redefining spouses in order to effect a second relational or matrimonial census permits a restricted matrimonial census

  • DIV - divorce (place/date/year/alter)

  • BAP - baptism (place/date/year)

  • BURI - burial (place/date/year)

  • DECO - decoration (place/date/year)

  • EDUC - education

  • NATI - nationality

  • OCCU - occupation

  • RELI - religion

  • RESI - residence

  • TITL – title


 The Classification of Kinship Relations
Among the most basic criteria for classifying kinship relations are the following:

a) According to the arc and edge pattern of lines:

  • Length : the number of arcs and edges included (Roman degree in the case of consanguine relations)
  • Height : the length of the longest linear chain included (German degree in the case of consanguine relations)
  • Width : the number of marriage edges included (consanguine relations have width 1, relinking marriages width 2 or more.)

b) According to the gender pattern of vertices :

  • Descent : agnatic, uterine or cognatic according to the gender of vertices in consanguine chains
  • Crossness : cross or parallel according to the gender difference of intermediate pairs of vertices in consanguine chains
  • Terminal crossness : cross or parallel according to the gender difference of terminal pairs of vertices in consanguine chains

c) According to symmetry features :

  • Skewedness: horizontal, ascending or descending according to differences in the length of the linear chains composing a consanguine chain
  • Automorphy: percentage of symmetry transformations that leave the kinship relation unchanged


 Kinship Relation Property Codes
Kinship Relation Property Codes are used to cluster kinship relations and matrimonial rings. Overall kinship relation properties are :

  • SIMPLE - the relation or ring type as such (the "finest" classification: each relation is in a separate class)

  • LENGTH - length : the number of links between ego and alter (in consanguine relations this corresponds to civil or roman degree)

  • HEIGTH - height : the maximal number of links to an apical ancestor (in consanguine relations this corresponds to canonic or germanic degree)

  • WIDTH - width: the number of consanguine components implied in the relation

  • SYM - symmetry: the number of automorphic transformations as a percentage of all possible transformations which leave gender and direction invariant

  • HETERO - a binary property, true if all married couples as well as the pair ego/alter are heterosexual, false otherwise


 Properties of Consanguine Relations
For kinship relations implying marriages, the code yield the profile of properties of the implied consanguine relations :

  • DEGREE - civil degree (number of links between consanguines)

  • ENDS - gender combination of ego/alter

  • SKEW - skewedness (generational distance between ego and alter)

  • SKEW+ - skewedness (in three classes: horizontal, oblique, alterne)
  • LINE - unilinearity type (agnatic, uterine, cognatic, bilateral or identity)

  • AGNA - agnatic coefficient (percentage of agnatic links)

  • UTER - uterine coefficient (percentage of uterine links)

  • DRAV - dravidian crossness

  • SWITCHES - number of gender switches

  • ARCH - gender combination of the apical siblings (children of the apical ancestor of the relation), not defined for linear relations

  • Status (allowed / not allowed / not defined) according to particular marriage systems

  • DRAV-H - dravidian crossness (horizontal system, Chimane model)

  • DRAV-O - dravidian crossness (oblique system, Parakana model)